Saturday, 20 May 2017

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Katherine Johnson Space Scientist (A Name to Know)

Katherine was born in on 26 August 1918 in White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia where her father Joshua was a farmer, and her mother Joylette was a teacher. From an early age, Katherine knew exactly what she wanted to do, and mathematics came easily to her.
I counted everything. I counted the steps in the road, the steps up to the church, the number of dishes and silverware I washed… anything that could be counted.
She longed to go to school. She began to follow her brother to school, one day meeting with his teacher. The teacher was impressed that Katherine could already read and allowed her to attend a summer school. When she officially started school just before her sixth birthday, she was put straight into the second grade, and later, when she was about to enter the fifth grade, she was again moved up a year.
Despite having missed grades one and five, she was ready for high school by the time she was ten. Unfortunately, school for African-Americans in White Sulphur Springs finished at the eighth grade but her father considered education and the equal opportunity of attaining it of paramount importance. He had always taught his children “you are as good as anybody in this town, but you’re no better”.
And with that his driving force, he moved his family 125 miles to West Virginia, where education continued to high school level. Katherine went on to study at West Virginia State High School. She graduated early, at the age of 14, and transferred to the associated West Virginia State College earning a full scholarship which included tuition, as well as room and board. Katherine was one of the first African American’s to enrol in a Mathematics course.
President Barack Obama gives the Presidential Medal of Freedom to NASA mathematician Katherine G. Johnson during a ceremony in the East Room of the White House in Washington, D.C., 

A young professor, W.W. Schiefflin Claytor, (the third African-American to earn a Ph.D. degree in mathematics), quickly recognised Katherine’s abilities in mathematics. Claytor proceeded to guide Katherine in her choice of courses. He ensured that she took all of the mathematics classes that she would need to enable her to follow her passion and devised a special course covering analytical geometry of space, specifically with Katherine in mind. This knowledge was to prove especially useful when she later joined the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (later to became the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). By the age of 18, Katherine had obtained a Bachelor of Science degree in French and Mathematics from West Virginia State University.
After college, Katherine began teaching in rural Virginia and West Virginia schools, often the only option for women in her community. She accepted her first job in an elementary school after being told that if she could teach French and Maths and play the piano, then the job was hers. It was on a bus ride to this school in Marion, Virginia that she encountered one of her most remembered experiences of racism.
Katherine felt that the racism in West Virginia was less blatant than that in Virginia. As such, she was surprised when on crossing into Virginia from West Virginia the bus came to a halt and all black people were told to move to the back. When the driver said all the coloured people were to be put into taxis, Katherine refused until he asked politely. A stand indicative of lifetime refusal to be thought of as less than equal.
Katherine left teaching in 1939 to marry James Francis Noble and start a family. They went on to have three daughters, Constance, Joylette and Katherine. However in 1940, West Virginia State University invited her to join a graduate maths programme, making her one of the first black people to enrol in the graduate programme. Katherine did feel that the college administration were trying to avoid a segregation-related lawsuit, but was still very eager to join the programme. Unfortunately, James became ill and she was forced to leave her studies to support her family. She returned to teaching.
In 1952, Katherine discovered that Langley Research Centre with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) were looking to recruit mathematically-able African-American women. A year later, she began work there as research mathematician, initially in a pool of women performing maths calculations. Katherine reported that the pools of women were like “computers who wore skirts”, robotically processing data.
 Luck is a combination of preparation and opportunity. If you’re prepared and the opportunity comes up, it’s your good fortune to have been in the right place at the right time and to have been prepared for the job.
Within two weeks she, along with another colleague, were invited to join the all-male flight research engineers on a temporary basis to assist in calculations. This team would later be involved in the new Space Task Force when the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics became the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Katherine’s knowledge of analytic geometry so impressed her male bosses that “they forgot to return me to the pool.”
Katherine recognised the pervading presence of the racial and gender barriers but chose to ignore them. She asked to be included in editorial meetings, even though she was aware that women were never permitted to do so. She publicly insisted that she had done the work and had earned her place in those meetings. On one occasion, when a question arose that the men couldn’t answer, a male colleague had no choice but to refer to Katherine. It was a memorable moment which she felt vindicated her presence there.
We were all dedicated to NASA.
1959 saw the space programme moving forward at a great pace, with America and Russia vying to be the first to the moon. Katherine’s forte lay in the calculation of the trajectories for the accurate timing of space launches.
Katherine did the calculations for the launch time for Alan Shepard’s Mercury mission in 1961, the first American in space. She did the highly complex calculations for propelling space capsules into orbit around the moon, and those for sending landing units to and from the lunar surface. She plotted the navigational charts, guiding ships by the stars in case of electronic failure and in 1962, verified the first computer calculations of John Glenn’s orbit around Earth.
She participated in the authorship of the first textbook about space, after completing work in flight dynamics on a secret programme.
We wrote our own textbook, because there was no other text about space. I was in at the beginning, I was one of those lucky people.
In 1969, she calculated the trajectory for the Apollo 11 flight to the moon. Her later work included the Space Shuttle programme and plans for a Mars mission. In her time at NASA, she co-authored 26 scientific papers, retiring in 1986 after 33 years service.
I found what I was looking for at Langley. This was what a research mathematician did. I went to work every day for 33 years, happy. Never did I get up and say “I don’t want to go to work.”
Katherine has a host on honorary doctorates, five NASA special achievement awards, an Apollo Group Achievement Award for getting 1 of only 300 flags onto the moon on board Apollo 11, and a further team award for pioneering work in the field of navigation, when she was part of supporting the five spacecraft that orbited and mapped the moon in preparation for the Apollo program.
Up until 2008, she was still involved in maths, tutoring youngsters. She tells youngsters to be self-reliant and to learn everything they can. She celebrated her 90th birthday on Women’s Equality Day, 26 August 2008.
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Friday, 19 May 2017

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Satellite Being Jointly Built By NASA And ISRO Will Cost Over 1.5Billion Dollars & will do this

Los Angeles: Till recently, American space agency NASA and India's ISRO were almost forbidden to talk to each other as sanctions were in place. But that has changed now, and the two space agencies are jointly making a satellite called NISAR that will monitor the Earth like never before. 

NISAR or the NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite could possibly be the world's most expensive Earth imaging satellite and will cost the two countries over 1.5 billion dollars.   

Indian and American scientists are working overtime to make this satellite a reality. 

"NISAR is the first big collaboration between NASA and ISRO, certainly on RADAR but just in general as well. This is two frequency RADAR, it is an L-band 24 centimetre RADAR and S-band 13 centimetre. S-band is being built by ISRO and L-band by NASA. It is a major collaboration both in terms of the technical building of the satellite as well as working together across the Pacific between India and US," said Paul A Rosen, a scientist working on the NISAR satellite project.

The NISAR satellite will be launched in 2021 from India using the Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) and it opens a new vista in Indo-US friendship.

Mr Rosen says "We are going to be making snap shots of the Earth every week using these two radars that gives us a time lapse image of the motion of the tectonic plates, of the ice sheets, of the changes in vegetation over land in agriculture and forests. So what we are doing is looking at time variability of the Earth over the life of the mission to understand how disasters evolve, how earthquakes occur, how volcanoes occur, how the ice sheets are changing and affecting sea level rise, and how forest fires and changes in the forest cover affect the atmosphere. It is very relevant to what society cares about which is changes in our climate, changes in our environment and how it affects society."

Source - NDTV
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Thursday, 18 May 2017

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Indian Teen builds lightest ever satellite - and it's being launched by Nasa next month

An 18-year-old from India built the world’s lightest satellite — and NASA’s going to send it into space.  Rifath Shaarook created a 4-centimeter (1½-inch), 3D-printed cube that weighs 2¼ ounces, making it lighter than an iPhone.  
“We built it completely from scratch,” he told India’s Business Standard. “It will have a new kind of on-board computer and eight indigenous built-in sensors to measure
 acceleration, rotation and the magnetosphere of the Earth.”  The satellite was one of 80 experiments selected through “Cubes in Space,” a student competition organized by NASA and the education company I Doodle Learning. The contest received more than 86,000 submissions from 57 countries.  

Shaarook nicknamed his design KalamSat, after Abdul Kalam, India’s former president and famed rocket scientist.  NASA will send the tiny box on a four-hour, suborbital spaceflight June 22, but KalamSat will only operate for 12 minutes in a micro-gravity environment. 


 The up-and-coming scientist told the Times of India that the satellite’s main purpose is to “demonstrate the performance of 3D-printed carbon” and see if the material can withstand the launch.  Shaarook, who also invented a helium weather balloon when he was 15, is the lead scientist at Space Kids India. The Chennai-based organization, which sponsored his submission, promotes science education for Indian children and teens

And that’s not the only record for Rifath. He is the first Indian student whose experiment will be launched by NASA. It will be launched by sounding rocket from Wallops Island. Rifath talks about his invention and explains-

People of the country are not only proud of you for breaking world records like this, but also because the name of your satellite is also a dedication to Late Dr. Kalam. That says a lot about you. 
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Friday, 12 May 2017

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Everything you Need to know about tachyons, theoretical particles that travel faster than light and move backward in time?

What is known about tachyons, theoretical particles that travel faster than light and move backward in time? Is there scientific reason to think they really exist?

What exactly are tachyons? If they can travel faster than light, how much faster can they go?

Answer 1:

You're learning about tachyons in 10th grade? That is quite ambitious. Tachyons are studied in an area called particle physics, and I must say this is a bit out of my league, but I'll give you some general thoughts. Tachyons are hypothetical particles resulting from what physicists call a thought experiment. Back in the 1960s, some physicists wondered what would happen if matter could travel faster than the speed of light, something that is supposed to be impossible according to the Theory of Relativity. So these particles may or may not exist because they have not been proven or disproven by real experiment as of yet. What people have done is apply existing formulas to the unique properties of tachyons (like imaginary mass!). What comes out is a particles that go faster when they lose energy with a MINIMUM velocity of the speed of light and a maximum velocity of infinity! Hope that helps. Theoretical physics is a weird place and is not too far off from philosophy.

Answer 2:

Let's start by saying that no one has ever seen a tachyon -- they don't exist in a universe that makes sense compared to itself. Since this is a question from the 10th grade, I'll go into a bit of detail.
In Einstein's theory of relativity, the "mass" of an object increases as it goes faster, becoming infinite at the speed of light, so it takes an infinite amount of energy (remember E=mc2 means energy and mass are the same) to reach the speed of light. This is why special relativity says we cannot go faster than the speed of light.
So what we talk about in physics is the mass of the object when it is sitting still, the "rest mass." If an object has a positive rest mass, it goes slower than the speed of light; if it is like light with a zero rest mass, it moves at light speed.What we call a tachyon is a particle (a fundamental particle, like an electron) that has an _imaginary_ rest mass. Naively, putting this into the equations of relativity (1) doesn't make a lot of sense and (2) seems like it would allow a particle faster than light.

I say naively because this is not really the full picture. To understand, we need to know what a fundamental particle is. Imagine that the universe is a ball sitting in a valley between two hills. If the ball gets bumped a little up one hill, it rolls back down and wobbles back and forth for a while. What we call a fundamental particle, like an electron, is really that wobble. The mass of the particle is given by how steep the hills are right near the valley. If we have a tachyon, this is really like the universe ball is at the _top_ of a hill between two valleys -- the mass is still given by how steep the hill is, but now the hill is going down. Then the "tachyon wobble" is when the ball moves away from the top of the hill. But then the ball won't go back to the top of the hill; it will go to a valley, somewhere else! So a tachyon isn't a particle in the usual sense because it's not a small wobble. A tachyon is really an instability in the universe, just like a ball at the top of a hill isn't stable. This is why I say a universe with a tachyon doesn't "make sense."
In the standard model of particle physics, this subject actually is very important. There is a particle called the Higgs particle that, in the early universe, was kept at the top of a hill by the high temperatures that were present in the Big Bang. As the temperatures dropped,eventually the Higgs particle could move around and slid down the hill. So as soon as it could tell it was a tachyon, it rolled away from the top of the hill and stopped being a tachyon. When that happened, the whole universe changed, leaving things the way they are today. This Higgs particle is the only particle in the standard model that hasn't been seen in experiments yet, but scientists believe it will be discovered within about 10 years at some new experiments.

"The name 'tachyon' (from the Greek 'tachys,' meaning swift) was coined by the late Gerald Feinberg of Columbia University. Tachyons have never been found in experiments as real particles traveling through the vacuum, but we predict theoretically that tachyon-like objects exist as faster-than-light 'quasiparticles' moving through laser-like media. (That is, they exist as particle-like excitations, similar to other quasiparticles called phonons and polaritons that are found in solids. 'Laser-like media' is a technical term referring to those media that have inverted atomic populations, the conditions prevailing inside a laser.)
"We are beginning an experiment at Berkeley to detect tachyon-like quasiparticles. There are strong scientific reasons to believe that such quasiparticles really exist, because Maxwell's equations, when coupled to inverted atomic media, lead inexorably to tachyon-like solutions.
"Quantum optical effects can produce a different kind of 'faster than light' effect (see "Faster than light?" by R. Y. Chiao, P. G. Kwiat, and A. M. Steinberg in Scientific American, August 1993). There are actually two different kinds of 'faster-than-light' effects that we have found in quantum optics experiments. (The tachyon-like quasiparticle in inverted media described above is yet a third kind of faster-than-light effect.)
"First, we have discovered that photons which tunnel through a quantum barrier can apparently travel faster than light (see "Measurement of the Single-Photon Tunneling Time" by A. M. Steinberg, P. G. Kwiat, and R. Y. Chiao, Physical Review Letters, Vol. 71, page 708; 1993). Because of the uncertainty principle, the photon has a small but very real chance of appearing suddenly on the far side of the barrier, through a quantum effect (the 'tunnel effect') which would seem impossible according to classical physics. The tunnel effect is so fast that it seems to occur faster than light.
"Second, we have found an effect related to the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen phenomenon, in which two distantly separated photons can apparently influence one anothers' behaviors at two distantly separated detectors (see "High-Visibility Interference in a Bell-Inequality Experiment for Energy and Time,"This effect was first predicted theoretically by Prof. J. D. Franson of Johns Hopkins University. We have found experimentally that twin photons emitted from a common source (a down-conversion crystal) behave in a correlated fashion when they arrive at two distant interferometers. This phenomenon can be described as a 'faster-than-light influence' of one photon upon its twin. Because of the intrinsic randomness of quantum phenomena, however, one cannot control whether a given photon tunnels or not, nor can one control whether a given photon is transmitted or not at the final beam splitter. Hence it is impossible to send true signals in faster-than-light communications.

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Friday, 5 May 2017

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ISRO GSAT-9 South Asia Satellite, India’s gift to neighbours, takes off

GSAT-9 launch: The Rs 235-crore ISRO satellite, funded entirely by India, will improve disaster and telecommunication links between six south Asian countries.

ISRO GSLV F-09 satellite launch Live Updates: Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has launched the much-anticipated the South Asia Communication Satellite on Friday afternoon – PM Narendra Modi has famously projected it as India’s ‘gift’ to South Asian countries. The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle GSLV F-09 carrying the communication and broadcasting satellite will take off from the second launch pad of the Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikotta at 4.57 pm. Prime Minister Narendra Modi in his episode of ‘Mann Ki Baat’ said the satellite is India’s gift to the region that will go a long way in addressing the economic and development priorities of the nations in the region. Six of India’s neighbours including Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and the Maldives are participating in the space-based regional communication project. The satellite weighs around 2230 kilogram during lift off and will be carrying 12 Ku-Band transponders. It has been developed at a cost of about 235-crore rupees and the total cost of the project including the launch is worked out to be about 450-crore rupees.

. Addressing the nation through his monthly radio programme Mann ki Baat, Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday said the satellite launch is in tune with his government’s inclusive development agenda, “sab ka saath sab ka vikas”. While Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and Maldives are part of the programme, Pakistan  opted out.

5.05 pm: The successful run of India’s premier space agency, ISRO, continues with yet another feather added to its cap. Most recently, ISRO set a record by placing over 100 satellites in orbit.
5.00 pm: Here are the first images from the launch.
4.57 pm: We have lift off. The GSLV-F09 appears to be following the preset trajectory without any visible hitches.
4.55 pm: We are just a few minutes away from liftoff. The countdown will begin soon. Launch time: 4.57 pm.
4.50 pm:  The launch will be a huge boost to PM Modi’s “neighbourhood first policy”. It is set to propel regional cooperation between SAARC-member countries to new levels.
4.45 pm: Other added benefits and uses include mapping natural resources, tele medicine and education.
4.40 pm: The satellite is equipped with 12 KU transponders that will aid in improving communication between countries. The six participating countries in the space programme will be given access to at least two transponders.
4.30 pm: The GSAT-9 weighs 2230 kgs and was built in three years. It will have a mission life of  more than  12 years.
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Wednesday, 3 May 2017

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Who Began This Universe? Existence of God.

Who Began This Universe ?

There is no need for anybody to began this Universe to began it because there is no  beginning to this Universe and there is no end. 

This question has been asked by all the religion because everybody wants to know who began this universe. because your minds are so small they cannot conceive a beginning less universe & endless universe just eternity to eternity because you cannot conceive that vastness, then your question  arises "who create the universe" ? but if there was somebody already began it, there was universe.

Do you see the simple arithmetic if there was somebody already began it then you cannot call it beginning, because somebody was already there. if you think that god is really a necessary thing, it gives you consolation that god created the worlds so you have a beginning.
But who created god ? again you fall in the same problem and all the religions said that god exist eternally, there is no creator of god. if that is true for god then why it is not true for existence ? it is autonomous, it exists at its own there is not need of any creator because that creator will require another creator.
And if there is a beginning of universe then there must be an end of it, every beginning is the beginning of an end, every birth is the beginning of death.

Your problem is the capacity of mind is  very limited, you have to go beyond mind to see the beginning less & endless universe, Those who have risen beyond mind have also risen beyond god 
simultaneously god is a need for the mind because mind cannot conceive infinite eternal things it can conceive very limited things.

The question arises because of your mind's incapacity that who created universe? do you see the god cannot solve the question  then there will be the question 'who created god' ?
any hypothesis which cannot destroy  the question is useless. 

any answer that keeps pushing the question the further back but does not touch it is not the ans
the only ans you will find in your own experience that you dont have any beginning you dont have any end with on your own then you'll know the existence is autonomous. God is the insult to existence, to man, to consciousness,

There are hundred's of religion in the world and all are fighting witch each other, these are all created because the concept of god, and every religion has its own idea, because it is a fiction
you dont have different ideas about sun you only  can have different ideas about fiction it is upto you which every way you want, Faith does not give you the answers, it just stops you asking the question.  

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Wednesday, 26 April 2017

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Nasa's Cassini Spacecraft to End 20-year Mission by Crashing into Saturn. Everything you Need to Know.

For the last two decades, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft has afforded us a better understanding of our Solar System. Through it all, its main mission has been to study the gas giant Saturn, its ring system, and the icy moons. In the process, Cassini spacecraft has given us a staggering amount of data, with thousands of mesmerising pictures to boot. On Saturday though, the space probe entered the last stages of its life cycle, embarking on a new journey that will end with Cassini flying into Saturn. The journey will end with the spacecraft heading into Saturn's atmosphere and burning up like a meteor.

  • NASA's Cassini spacecraft arrived at Saturn in 2004
  • The final mission includes a trip between Saturn and its rings
  • Cassini will make 22 dives until September 15

Cassini spacecraft's intentional crash

This final stage of Cassini’s journey is being called the ‘Grand Finale’ by NASA scientists, in the hope of what they plan to achieve over the next few months. The destruction of Cassini spacecraft is an intentional move, because it’s running low on fuel, which means NASA will lose control of it soon. In a scenario like that, Cassini might end up on a path that could have undesirable consequences.
Thanks to the craft, we know that two of Saturn’s moons – Enceladus and Titan – have methane on their surface, which could be a sign of alien life. If the Cassini spacecraft were to crash into either of them, it could potentially contaminate what is native to those systems. That’s why the safest thing to do is to crash Cassini into Saturn itself, where it will burn and break into pieces.
Before that happens mid-September, Cassini will perform a series of 22 weekly dives – one trip taking about a week – between Saturn and its rings, giving us an unprecedented look of the 2,400km-wide region. The spacecraft’s final mission began earlier on Saturday, with a final fly-by of Titan. During its ‘Grand Finale’, Cassini will be just 2,950km from the planet’s atmosphere. As it does so, it will send beam tons of data back to Earth, right until it burns up.

That will include detailed maps of Saturn's gravity and magnetic fields, how much material is in Saturn’s rings, and ultimately the composition of its atmosphere. Along the way, the Cassini spacecraft will continue to send richly detailed images of the planet’s rings and clouds. It’s truly a grand end to the spacecraft’s two-decade journey in space, which has made us all wiser about the world we inhabit.

Cassini spacecraft's launch and journey

Cassini was launched in October 1997, and spent seven years travelling through space before entering orbit around Saturn in July 2004. To get there faster, Cassini’s route took it from Earth to Venus where it arrived in April 1998. The probe performed two fly-bys of Venus, and passed Earth again on its way to the asteroid belt. In December 2000, the Cassini spacecraft made its closest approach of our system’s biggest planet, Jupiter, which cleared up a few mysteries.
In this handout image released on April 30, 2013 by NASA, the spinning vortex of Saturn's north polar storm is seen from NASA's Cassini spacecraft on November 27, 2012 in the Saturnian system of space. The false-color image of the storm resembles a red rose surrounded by green foliage which was made by using a combination of spectral filters sensitive to wavelengths of near-infrared light at a distance of approximately 261,000 miles from Saturn
After arriving at Saturn, for the last 13 years, Cassini has discovered seven new moons orbiting the gas giant. The two most important ones, as mentioned previously, have been Enceladus and Titan. The latter was a big reason for Cassini spacecraft to be launched in the first place, as it carried a lander called Huygens that was built by the European Space Agency (ESA). When Huygens landed on Titan in January 2005, it became the furthest landing from Earth a probe had ever made.
Shortly after, Cassini flew by Enceladus, and sent back data that pointed towards a “thin but significant atmosphere”, and water ice geysers erupting at its south pole. Over the years, the spacecraft would return to Enceladus, and revealed a liquid ocean underneath its surface, plus hot spots on the ocean floor, which are strong signs of alien life.
Nasa's Cassini spacecraft is shown diving through Saturn's moon Enceladus

Cassini spacecraft’s Grand Finale
The reasons for giving Cassini’s final leg such importance comes from the fact that it’s about to explore a region we don’t know much about – the 2,400km-wide area between Saturn and its rings. Even NASA isn’t sure what we’ll find, and there’s every chance that a large enough particle could spell early demise for the Cassini spacecraft. But if things go well, scientists hope to solve mysteries that have plagued them for years, such as the mass of Saturn’s rings and the planet’s rotation rate, which in turn will tell us the length of a Saturn day.
A colour view of the southern hemisphere of Saturn's moon, Enceladus
The first crossing begins on April 26 at 2:30pm IST (9am UTC), for which Google has seen fit to crown the occasion with a doodle. The probe will be out of Earth’s contact while it collects data, and will only beam after it exits the ringed system. NASA won’t have it before 1pm on April 27, though. If everything goes well, the Cassini spacecraft will repeat the same orbit all over again, 21 more times.
Starting August 10, the spacecraft will slightly alter its course for the final five orbits, to allow it to sample Saturn’s atmosphere for the first time in the history of humanity. The first of those will take place on August 14, and once every week thereafter, until September 15 – the day it crashes into Saturn itself. NASA expects that by the fifth trip, Saturn’s gravitational pull – with added push from nearby Titan – will be too much for Cassini.
That doesn’t happen for another five months, and we’ll no doubt learn a lot between now and then. Moreover, the amount of data Cassini sends will keep scientists occupied for years to come, so there will be no shortage of additional information. The spacecraft has not only revealed the beauty of Saturn, its rings, and moons, over the last two decades, but made us rethink what life-capable worlds can look like, and greatly expanded our knowledge back home.
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Friday, 21 April 2017

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Water you can eat? This Edible Water bottle Could Put an End to Plastic Packaging

The manufacturing and transportation process of water is particularly wasteful. It is estimated that over 17 million barrels of oil are required to produce plastic bottles each year, which is enough energy to power 1.3 million cars and 190,000 homes in a single year1. Additionally, it is estimated that 3 liters of water is used to package a single liter of bottled water.

Edible water. Sounds like something from the future, right? A London-based start-up is slowly making it a reality. How many times have you bought a plastic bottle of water and tossed it after a single use? Skipping Rocks Lab, an innovative sustainable packaging start-up, hopes that never happens again. It is using 100 per cent natural materials extracted from plants and seaweed to create environmentally-friendly packaging. With their first product, Ooho, the start-up hopes to revolutionise how we hydrate ourselves. 

Modelled after fruit membranes - think oranges - Ooho is created by taking a ball of ice and then covering it in layers of membrane made from calcium chloride and a seaweed derivative called sodium alginate.  

The membrane is biodegradable and disappears within 4-6 weeks. It's also edible - which means you can drink your water on the go and potentially eat the 'bottle' it came in. 
According to the start-up, the spherical flexible packaging can also be used for other liquids including soft drinks and, yes, even alcohol. The flavourless membrane can even be flavoured or coloured. The best part? It's actually cheaper than plastic.
The water is packaged in a double layer of the membrane - so you peel off the first layer, pierce the second and then gulp down your water. And if the idea of biting into a blob of water freaks you out, don't worry. That part is completely optional. 

"At the end of the day you don't have to eat it," Ooho designer Pierre Paslier tells The Guardian. "But the edible part shows how natural it is. People are really enthusiastic about the fact that you can create a material for packaging matter that is so harmless that you can eat it."

"So many things are wrong about plastic bottles: the time they take to decompose, the amount of energy that goes into making them and the fact we are using more and more," he adds.

Source - NDTV & The Guardian 
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Sunday, 16 April 2017

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Researchers Image Dark Matter Bridge Between Galaxies

Dark matter is mysterious stuff, because we can’t really “see” it. But that hasn’t stopped scientists from researching it, and from theorizing about it. One theory says that there should be filament structures of dark matter connecting galaxies. Scientists from the University of Waterloo have now imaged one of those dark matter filaments for the first time.

The two scientists, Seth D. Epps and Michael J. Hudson, present their results in a paper at the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomy Society.
Theory predicts that filaments of dark matter connect galaxies together, by reaching from the dark matter halo of one galaxy to the same halo in another galaxy. Other researchers have found dark matter filaments connecting entire galaxy clusters, but this is the first time that filaments have been imaged between individual galaxies.
“This image moves us beyond predictions to something we can see and measure.” – Mike Hudson, University of Waterloo
“For decades, researchers have been predicting the existence of dark-matter filaments between galaxies that act like a web-like superstructure connecting galaxies together,” said Mike Hudson, a professor of astronomy at the University of Waterloo. “This image moves us beyond predictions to something we can see and measure.”
Dark matter makes up about 25% of the Universe. But it doesn’t shine, reflect, or interact with light in any way, so it’s difficult to study. The only way we can really study it is by observing gravity. In this study, the pair of astronomers used the weak gravitational lensing technique.
Weak gravitational lensing relies on the effect that mass has on light. Enough concentrated mass in the foreground—dark matter in this case—will warp light from distant sources in the background. 
When dealing with something as large as a super-massive Black Hole, gravitational lensing is quite pronounced. But galaxy-to-galaxy filaments of dark matter are much less dense than a black hole, so their individual effect is minimal. What the astronomers needed was the combined data from multiple galaxy pairs in order to detect the weak gravitational lensing.
Key to this study is the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. It performed a multi-year sky survey that laid the groundwork for this study. The researchers combined lensing images of over 23,000 pairs of galaxies 4.5 billion light years away. The resulting composite image revealed the filament bridge between the two galaxies. 
“By using this technique, we’re not only able to see that these dark matter filaments in the universe exist, we’re able to see the extent to which these filaments connect galaxies together.” – Seth D. Epps, University of Waterloo 
We still don’t know what dark matter is, but the fact that scientists were able to predict these filaments, and then actually find them, shows that we’re making progress understanding it. 
We’ve known about the large scale structure of the Universe for some time, and we know that dark matter is a big part of it. Galaxies tend to cluster together, under the influence of dark matter’s gravitational pull. Finding a dark matter bridge between galaxies is an intriguing discovery. It at least takes a little of the mystery out of dark matter.

Source - UniverseToday

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NASA snapped first photos of a mysterious and crack in one of Greenland’s largest glaciers

© 2017 The Washington Post 

NASA Just Snapped The First Photos Of A New Crack In One Of Greenland's Largest Glaciers
The first photographs of a new and ominous crack in Greenland's enormous Petermann Glacier were captured by a NASA airborne mission Friday.

NASA's Operation IceBridge, which has been flying over northwest Greenland for the past several days, took the photos after being provided coordinates by Stef Lhermitte, a professor at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, who had spotted the oddly located chasm by examining satellite images.

The NASA pictures make clear that a significant new rift has opened near the center of the glacier's floating ice shelf -- an unusual location that raises questions about how it formed. Moreover, this crack is not so distant from another much wider and longer crack that has been slowly extending toward the shelf's center from its eastern side wall.  

If the two cracks were to intersect, then a single break would run across more than half of the ice shelf. That might, in turn, cause the piece to begin to break away.

peterman glacier
Peterman glacier's east wall near the terminus of the floating ice shelf.
But in the image NASA also noted another feature in the ice that it termed a "medial flow line" that, it said, "may exert a stagnating effect on the propagation of the new rift toward the older one." So it remains to be seen just how much, and how rapidly, the new rift - which has only just been discovered - could undermine the floating ice shelf.
Climate Change is Real

Still, there's good precedent for worrying about what could happen at Petermann. When two prior ice islands broke off the glacier in 2010 and 2012 - the 2010 island in particular was extremely large - the events drew major media attention and were even discussed in a hearing before Congress.

"Last week, an ice sheet covering 100 square miles broke off Greenland," then-Rep. Edward Markey, D-Mass., the chairman of the Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming, said at the opening of the hearing in summer 2010. "This giant ice island is more than four times the size of Manhattan. It is the largest piece of Arctic ice to break free in nearly half a century."

Those past breaks also caused the glacier's floating ice shelf to become much smaller than it had been before.

Petermann Glacier has grown back somewhat since the 2010 and 2012 breaks because of its steady flow outward (at a rate that appears to be accelerating somewhat). But if the next piece breaks off, the size of the glacier would plunge once again, according to Jason Box of the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. Box estimates the resulting ice island would be some 50 to 70 square miles in size, or more than twice the size of Manhattan.

peterman glacier greenland
Crevassed ice margin, northwest Greenland
NASA's Operation IceBridge is a research mission in which instrumented aircraft are flown over ice at both poles - both Greenland and Antarctica - to collect data about the state of polar ice and how it is changing. IceBridge operates over Greenland at this time of year and snapped the photos on what appeared to be a crystal-clear day at the glacier.

It has also taken recent photos of other nearby glaciers, such as Heilprin and Upernavik, and the state of floating sea ice in the channel between northwestern Greenland and northeastern Canada, in addition to its extensive data-gathering work.

After seeing the new NASA images, Lhermitte responded that it was "amazing to see the rift from nearby after studying it from space for several days." But, he added, "From these images alone, it is difficult to already say anything about what exactly caused the crack on this unusual spot."

The crack appeared in the middle of the floating shelf, rather than on one of its sides, as is typical of this glacier -- leading Lhermitte to wonder whether it could have been caused by the ocean waters below the shelf.

You can bet that scientists will be conducting a great deal more research on this crack, what caused it and whether it might precipitate bigger changes to Petermann Glacier.

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Sunday, 2 April 2017

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Frozen Bodies Waiting To Be Revived in The Future, Everything You Need to Know About Cryonics..

There are More Than 250 People Cryopreserved (Frozen) in the hope that one day technology will be invented to revive them and to extend there life.

Rumors of famous celebrities being frozen after death in hopes to be revived again may not be too far off!

We’re not exactly saying that Walt Disney’s body is an ice cube in some undisclosed location somewhere far, far away – BUT it does look like a not for profit organization based out of Michigan has already been taking the steps towards one day making revival from cryopreservation possible!

The Cryonics Institute was founded in 1976 by Robert Ettinger whose fascination with preserving life through technology has earned him the title of “Father of Cryonics.”
In 1964, Ettinger wrote a book called “The Prospect of Immortality,” which introduced the idea of cryonics and since then the Cryonics Institute has established itself as an authority in the technology – starting with Ettinger’s own mother as their first patient!


According to the Cryonics Institute, as soon as possible after a legal death, a member patient is infused with a substance to prevent ice from forming. They are then cooled to a chilling temperature where physical decay essentially stops. From there the member patient is maintained indefinitely in cryostasis or otherwise stored in liquid nitrogen.
There’s no doubt that cryopreservation is possible, but what about the whole coming back to life thing?
Well, the institute claims that revival is a real possibility. Many biological specimens have been cryopreserved, stored at liquid nitrogen temperature where all decay ceases, and revived; these include whole insects, vinegar eels, many types of human tissue including brain tissue, human embryos which have later grown into healthy children, and a few small mammalian organs. Increasingly more cells, organs and tissues are being reversibly cryopreserved.


The dictionary definition of “death” is permanent cessation of vital functions. Therefore, if someone is recovered, that means the person wasn’t “really” dead in the first place, and we think that’s the best way to look at it.
Not according to the institute. Cryonics is a matter of rational procedure, not religious miracle. Cryonics can’t restore life to people whose brains have been long been physically destroyed — say a Lincoln, or a Julius Caesar, or those cremated. Cryonics simply — but reasonably — claims that if you cryopreserve a person in a way that limits damage, then that person’s brain structure may be preserved sufficiently to make it at least possible the eventual recovery of life and health.

With all the apparently dead people, no heartbeat or respiration — being revived every year, in hospitals all over the world, by the thousands – they seem to think that ‘raising the dead’ is not all that uncommon.

Interestingly enough, the cost of something like this is relatively affordable. If you’re looking to chill out after death, then you’ll need to cough up about $28,000 to start — a one-time fee, due at time of death

In Layman Terms - 
  • Cryonics procedure of preserving bodies at very low temperature in the hope that it will be possible to revive bodies in future.
  • To undergo this a person must be legally Dead, This  means having no Heartbeat- but they still have some Brain function. Theoretically, this means they could be brought back to life.
  • The procedure first sees a body's blood replaced with a cryoprotectant, It protects the body's tissues with damage otherwise the water in cell cause the to burst during the freezing.
  • The body is frozen to temperatures of below -130 degree C using the nitrogen gas.
  • The scientific theory is speculative, unproven and controversial, but since the first person was cryogenically frozen in 1967 hundreds have been frozen including sports star such as Ted Williams 

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Friday, 31 March 2017

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SpaceX makes aerospace history with successful launch and landing of aused rocket


SpaceX launched a commercial satellite into space on Thursday with the boost of a partly used rocket, a feat that may open an era of cheaper space travel.
A Falcon 9 rocket from SpaceX — formally Space Exploration Technologies Corporation, based in Hawthorne, Calif. — lifted off from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida to deposit the payload, a telecommunications satellite that will service Latin America, in the proper orbit.
What was noteworthy was that the first stage, or booster, of the rocket had already flown once before. It could conceivably launch again, since it returned in one piece, landing on a floating platform in the Atlantic.
“It did this mission perfectly,” Mr. Musk said during a SpaceX broadcast of the launch. “It dropped off the second stage, came back and landed on the drone ship. Right in the bulls-eye.”
A commercial flight employing a reused rocket is a stride toward reducing the cost of sending payload to space, for business ventures like satellite companies in particular. For Elon Musk, the founder and chief executive of SpaceX, replicating this flight with reusable rockets on a regular basis would be a crucial step toward his dream of sending people to Mars.

“It means you can fly and refly an orbital class booster, which is the most expensive part of the rocket,” Mr. Musk said.
Until now, almost all rockets have been single use. Once the fuel is spent, a rocket stage plummets to Earth, a quick demise to a complex machine that cost tens of millions of dollars to build.
Mr. Musk has likened that to scrapping a 747 jet after one flight.
The booster for Thursday’s flight had been part of the rocket that carried cargo supplies to the International Space Station for NASA last April. As the rocket’s second stage and cargo capsule continued to orbit, the booster steered itself back and set down on the floating platform, which is playfully named “Of Course I Still Love You.”
After the platform returned to port in Jacksonville, Fla., the booster was refurbished, tested and deemed ready for another flight. SES, the company that owns and operates the satellite launched Thursday, was the first commercial customer for a Falcon 9 in 2013, and it signed up for the first flight with a recycled booster at a discount from the usual $62 million launch price. Neither SES nor SpaceX has publicly said how large the discount was.
Mr. Musk has suggested that rocket launches could eventually be much cheaper because the cost of rocket propellants is less than 1 percent of the full price for a launch. So if a rocket could simply be refueled like a jetliner for another flight, the cost of space travel could drop to a fraction of what it is now.
How that might play out in practice is still unclear. The same reasoning led NASA to develop space shuttles in the 1970s, but the savings never materialized because of the extensive refurbishment of the orbiters needed between flights. “We were pushing a lot of technology,” said Daniel Dumbacher, a former NASA official who is now a professor at Purdue University.
SpaceX, however, has a better chance. The Falcon 9 was designed from the start to be reusable. Its engines, for example, do not offer cutting-edge performance — but that means they are simpler and more robust, and thus easier, faster and cheaper to get ready for the next flight.
“They’ve taken the right first steps,” Mr. Dumbacher said. “This is where you just have to get out and do it.”
Reusable rockets may soon become commonplace. Blue Origin, a rocket company started by Jeff Bezos, the founder of Amazon, is putting similar emphasis on rockets that can be flown many times, not just once. United Launch Alliance, a joint venture of Boeing and Lockheed Martin, is also looking to incorporate reusability in its next rocket, Vulcan. But instead of landing the entire first stage, the plan is for the engine compartment — the most valuable part — to eject and descend via parachute, to be plucked out of the air by a helicopter.
In the near term, reusable rockets could lower the cost of launching satellites and thus make space affordable to more companies for more uses. Currently, most satellites are used for telecommunications or for observations of the Earth.
For his Mars dreams, Mr. Musk envisions a gargantuan spaceship he calls the Interplanetary Transport System that would someday transport humans. That would be far too expensive to be thrown away, so SpaceX needs to solve the reusability problem.
Perhaps an even greater challenge is finding a way to finance the development of such a large rocket. Today, most of SpaceX’s revenue comes from launching satellites for commercial companies and from NASA contracts to take cargo and, soon, astronauts to the International Space Station.

Source - NYTimes
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